Related Products:

EMMK-101, EMMK-102, EMMK-103

Related Documents:

ISCM-0380, ISCM-0385




single integration, double integration


This article describes symptoms and causes of error values for integrated features.

Error Values for Integrated Features

Symptoms of Issue

  • Features appear in the web application with incorrect values (by default, -1), which indicates an error occurred.

  • The features are for a measurement type derived by single or double integration. For example, features calculated from velocity data that you derive from acceleration data via single integration.

Possible Cause

The time-domain data from which the InsightCM Server calculates the features might not be of a sufficient duration. To calculate features from integrated data, the InsightCM Server requires enough time-domain data to allow for filter settling time.

Common Causes of This Issue

As mentioned previously, this issue occurs only when single or double integration is enabled for a channel. Also, the issue often occurs in data acquired as part of a run-up or coast-down stream because those acquisitions can be very short. For example, consider a device configured to perform stream acquisitions with a length of 10 revolutions. For fast-moving equipment, the revolutions might occur in a very short amount of time, meaning the resulting waveforms do not contain enough data for InsightCM Server to calculate feature values.

This issue can still occur even if you ensure that acquisitions always last at least one second. For example, consider an accelerometer channel with single integration enabled in order to perform velocity measurements. If features calculated from the acceleration data are valid but velocity features have error values, the cause might be that the velocity time-domain data is too short. This occurs because of the way the InsightCM Server filters integrated time-domain data.

How Filtering Affects the Duration of Integrated Data

To account for integration settling time, InsightCM discards the first n seconds of the integrated time-domain data before calculating features from it, where the following equation determines the value of n.

n = (1 / Integration Cutoff) * x

As the following table explains, the value of Integration Cutoff and x vary according to whether the InsightCM Server performs single or double integration.

Type of Integration

Source of Integration Cutoff Value 1

Value of x Constant


Single Integration Cutoff property



Double Integration Cutoff property


1Set these properties for each channel on the Device Configuration page»Channels tab»Properties tab.

Working Around This Issue

To avoid situations where integrated time-domain data is too short, set the acquisition duration to be a number of seconds such that the waveform is at least one second longer than the integration filter settling time.

Also, if you change the value of the Single Integration Cutoff or Double Integration Cutoff property for a channel, ensure the new value does not cause the integration settling time to become too long.

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